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Home > About Us > Glass
Application: use of raw material loading and unloading and conveying system

Glass production process

The general production process of glass, the main product produced is flat glass; glass is a glassy substance formed by heating, baking and cooling under normal conditions. The main production process is: raw material preparation-melting-forming all materials → packing.

1. Preparation of raw materials
There are 7 main materials for glass, they are silica sand, quartz sand, dolomite, calcite, soda ash, Glauber's salt and carbon powder. These 7 kinds of raw materials have their own methods, and their own methods are as follows:

Silica sand is conveyed from a feeding box, a feeding box, a silo, and a silo → a powder silo (silica sand is conveyed by a flat belt from the powder silo to the powder silo)

Quartz sand goes from the hanging garage→feeding box→drying box→separation bin→powder bin (transmitted by diagonal belt).

The preparation process of dolomite and calcite is the same, from a feeding box to a middle box to a hammer crusher to a powder silo.

When the raw material enters the hexagonal plug for separation, when it comes out, the lower raw material particles are smaller and can directly enter the powder silo: while the upper raw material particles are larger, they are transferred back to the hammer crusher for secondary crushing. The various processes of raw materials from the feeding box to the powder silo are also conveyed by diagonal belts.

The preparation process of soda ash and Glauber's salt is the same, from storage to dumping storage to hexagonal plug to powder storage.

After the raw materials come out of the hexagonal plug, the lower raw materials enter the powder bin, and the upper powder returns to the dumping box. They are manually pushed from the storage to the dump box.

The coal powder is filtered from a storage tank to a drying box.
Carbon powder contains some impurities such as iron and sawdust. The main function of plug filter here is to remove impurities

Spreading tray

(2) Weighing and mixing of raw materials
Weighing When the raw materials are ready, weighing is carried out. There are two types of weighing: incremental method and decrement method. Beijiang Glass Factory adopts the incremental method, weighing with a large electronic scale, with an accuracy of 1‰. The average accuracy of silica sand per 10,000 kg of mixed raw materials is 2 kg; the accuracy of quartz stone and dolomite is 1 kg; calcite 0.1 kg; soda ash 0.8 kg; Glauber's salt 0.5 kg; stone carbon powder 0.2 kg

The feeding sequence is dolomite, calcite, quartz sand, mixed mirabilite and carbon powder, soda ash, silica sand. (The mixed Glauber's salt and soda ash can lower the melting point.

Mixing After the raw materials are weighed, the raw materials are conveyed to the intermediate bin through the inclined belt, and then conveyed to the mixer for mixing. The raw materials are dry-mixed in the mixer for 1 minute. After adding 4%-5% of water, the total time for adding water is about 40 seconds. After the water is added, the mixing time is about 2 minutes. The total mixing time of the raw materials in the mixer is about Three and a half minutes

Adding broken glass When the raw materials are mixed, they are conveyed to the shaking head bin through the inclined belt, and the broken glass is added into the shaking head bin. Different factories have different standards for the amount of addition. The standard of the Northern Glass Factory is: the ratio of the cullet to the raw material is 20:80. The main role played by cullet is to reduce costs and boost flux.

2. Melting of raw materials

After the raw materials are mixed, the raw materials are melted, that is, the mixture is heated in the furnace to make it only into glass water. There are seven pairs of small furnaces in the melting furnace, and each row of seven small furnaces on the left and right is turned on for 20 minutes. The temperature of each small stove is different.

The first pair of small furnace temperatures is 1240℃,
The second pair is 1480℃,
The third pair is 1510℃,
The fourth pair is 1570℃,
The fifth pair is 1590℃
The sixth pair is 1570℃,
The seventh pair is 150°C. The temperature of the seven pairs of small furnaces forms a mountain-shaped curve.

As shown in the figure below: The fifth pair of small furnaces has the highest temperature, which is a hot spot. We call the fifth pair of temperature lines the boundary line. When the raw material is still before the boundary line, it is the glass raw material that still contains small solid particles. When the raw material passes through the fifth pair of small furnaces, it is molten glass. If it still contains small particles that have not melted, it is said to be out of material, which will seriously affect the quality of the glass, which is absolutely not allowed.

The distance between the glass surface and the pool surface is 28.8+/-0.2mm
There can be no negative pressure in the pressure furnace, and a slight positive pressure of 5-6 Pa should always be maintained

Cooling, forming and cutting of glass
Cooling and molding When the raw materials are melted, they must be cooled. After the ball is formed, it must enter the annealing kiln and the flat drawing chamber. The temperature of the flat drawing chamber is 570℃-590℃, and the temperature of the steering tube of the flat drawing chamber can reach 650~670℃. The temperature of the annealing kiln is divided into seven stages. They are respectively ①550℃~540℃,②500℃-520℃,③470℃~490℃,④410℃-430℃,⑤360℃~380℃,⑥350℃~370℃, ⑦190℃~210℃. The seventh temperature is the temperature after the glass exits the annealing furnace.

There are four cutting lines for cutting materials, and their respective temperatures are different from the thickness of the factory glass. The temperature of the first line and the fourth line are the same as 980℃~100℃, and the temperature of the second and third lines is the same 990~1010℃. .

Speed The speed of glass in the cutting board is related to the thickness of the glass. The speed of glass with a thickness of 2mm is 130~140m/h, and the speed of 3mm is 90~95mh, and the speed of 5mm is 50~55m/h.

4. Output and product testing
Output The daily output of one production line is 260~280 heavy boxes (one heavy box is 50 kilograms of glass). The monthly output is 130,000 boxes. The first new kiln was put into production at 140,000 boxes per month, and after about two years, production began to decrease by about 120,000 to 130,000 boxes.

The detection test is divided into the detection of raw meal and the detection of clinker and finished products, mainly detecting the composition and percentage of raw meal; the composition of glass is: 72.2% of silicon dioxide, 1.8% of aluminum oxide, and 0.14 of iron dioxide. %, Calcium Oxide 7.5%, Magnesium Oxide 4.0%, Sodium Oxide 4.05%, Impurity 0.3%, if too much iron is contained, the glass will turn green. Some glass has bubbles, which are caused by ① the content of raw materials changes, and ② the glass bell is inappropriate. The factory's top quality products accounted for 23%, qualified products accounted for 70%, and foreign products less than 7%

3. In addition to the production process and the raw materials used, the environmental pollution caused by production and the preventive measures taken by the company; as well as the aging of equipment and maintenance measures